Bryan Fryer 
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Re: “TUSD Banning Books? Well Yes, and No, and Yes

Bogus arguments for Tucson ethnic studies finally debunked

24 comments by Doug MacEachern, columnist - Mar. 6, 2011 12:00 AM
The Arizona Republic

The unsupportable claim that the ethnic-studies classes of Tucson Unified School District somehow improve the academic performance of its students has survived a slew of critics.

But now, the district's own statisticians have - finally - examined the claims and found them lacking. Can the true believers ignore the district's own findings, too?

In response to a request for information from newly elected TUSD board member Michael Hicks, the district's statistician, David Scott, ran empirical data in February on some of the central tenets about academic performance by ethnic-studies students.

Sources in Tucson provided the results of Scott's analysis to me. Among other conclusions, he found:

- Passing AIMS: Students who "take one or more Mexican American Studies (MAS) classes are far less likely than other students to pass the (Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards) the first time." Scott found that, "after all five test opportunities," MAS students "achieve roughly the same passing rate" as their peers who took no ethnic-studies courses. This is in profound contravention of the claims that ethnic-studies students are superior to their peers at passing AIMS.

- Claims of superior graduation rates: Considering the entire 2010 cohort of seniors, 83 percent of TUSD students graduated in four years. "This is true for students who did and did not take MAS classes."

Scott did find that students from the lowest-income families who take MAS classes graduate at higher rates than poor students who did not take MAS classes. Scott calls the effect of taking MAS classes a "substantial boost" for those poorest students.

But even their graduation figure, 79 percent, is dramatically lower than the 97 percent graduation rate that ethnic-studies directors repeatedly claim. And it might also be the result of students replacing tough, traditional history and English courses with undemanding, virtually failure-free ethnic-studies classes.

- Going on to college: Based on the district's survey of graduating seniors, Scott found "roughly the same proportion of MAS and non-MAS students intend to enroll in college after high-school graduation."

Scott acknowledged that some of the data available to him was sketchy, but even that observation raises red flags about the district's sensational claims about its ethnic-studies program. No one in the district ever cross-checked the data presented by program director Augustine Romero in the so-called "nine cohort studies" he produced several years ago because no one has ever seen the data!

Wrote Scott in a Feb. 23 e-mail report to the administrative aide of TUSD Superintendent John Pedicone:

"I have never seen the specific data used by the Mexican American Studies staff to make claims of superior graduation and higher education participation rates. You might want to check with them to see if they can provide the information themselves."

Scott has a solid reputation in the small circle of school-district statisticians. But will advocates ignore his findings, too?

They are trying. Judy Burns, a member of the TUSD governing board, declined to comment to me about the Scott memo, other than to say that the director of the MAS program, Sean Arce, had not yet reviewed Scott's findings.

At least Pedicone, the district's newly appointed superintendent, told me on Friday that his office is "looking at this ourselves," an indication the issue has caught the district's attention at last. The superintendent said he has instructed his statisticians to work with the ethnic-studies directors to produce accurate data. That would be progress.

The program's true believers, including many in the national media, have ignored for years findings that the central claims of TUSD's ethnic-studies program are false. There's no reason to presume they will stop now.

The state Department of Education has analyzed the claims and found them baseless. National education experts have poked myriad holes in the contentions. No peer-reviewed, academically valid research ever has found that politically inspired, race-based courses cause students to take their studies more seriously and go to college.

But clinging to the folklore is crucial. The claims are the only meaningful rationale for the controversial program's existence. Minus the fantasy of stunningly improved standardized test scores, astonishing leaps in graduation rates and amazing improvement in traditional courses, the program collapses into its true self: a politically leftist recruitment program that subtracts from the academic value of students' education.

And, so, its supporters keep drinking the program's Kool-Aid. Late last year, the TUSD governing board issued a resolution declaring its devotion to the program, in part recognizing that: "The students that partake in its Ethnic Studies courses, as proven by test results, are more likely to pass the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) exam than those students who do not partake in said courses; have a 97 percent graduation rate, and have a college matriculation rate 193 percent greater than the national average."

Can those sorts of wild claims survive an admission by the school district itself that the courses change virtually nothing? Don't bet against these guys.


Read more: http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/opinions/articles/2011/03/05/20110305maceachern-ethnic-studies-0306.html#ixzz1g05fLbdJ

1 like, 1 dislike
Posted by Bryan Fryer on 04/29/2014 at 2:13 AM

Re: “TUSD Banning Books? Well Yes, and No, and Yes

"Go back to Boston! Go back to Plymouth Rock, Pilgrims! Get out! We are the future. You are old and tired. Go on. We have beaten you. Leave like beaten rats. You old white people. It is your duty to die. Through love of having children, we are going to take over." -- Augustin Cebada, Brown Berets

"They're afraid we're going to take over the governmental institutions and other institutions. They're right. We will take them over. We are here to stay." -- Richard Alatorre, Los Angeles City Councilman

"We have an aging white America. They are not making babies. They are dying. The explosion is in our population . . . I love it. They are shitting in their pants with fear. I love it!" -- Professor Jose Angel Gutierrez, University of Texas

"Remember 187-proposition to deny taxpayer funds for services to non-citizens--was the last gasp of white America in California." - Art Torres, Chairman of the California Democratic Party

"We are politicizing every single one of these new citizens that are becoming citizens of this country . . . I gotta tell you that a lot of people are saying, 'I'm going to go out there and vote because I want to pay them back.'" -- Gloria Molina, Los Angeles County Supervisor

"California is going to be a Hispanic state. Anyone who doesn't like it should leave." -- Mario Obledo, California
Coalition of Hispanic Organizations and California State Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare under Governor Jerry Brown, also awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Bill Clinton

"We are practicing 'La Reconquista' in California." -- Jose Pescador Osuna, Mexican Consul General

"We need to avoid a white backlash by using codes understood by Latinos." -- Professor Fernando Guerra, Loyola Marymount University

"The American Southwest seems to be slowly returning to the jurisdiction of Mexico without firing a single shot." -- Excelsior, the national newspaper of Mexico

Note: There are Mexicans that don't feel this way, but there is an overwhelming Majority who do believe this, and they will take our country if we don't stop it now!

Here we have a Mexican American history teacher advocating revolution against White America at the Campus of UCLA!
The Infamous Ron Gochez
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRu0wo3DYh0


In San Diego, the Mexican people have a park called Chicano Park, and they have all their Communist Friends Painted on the Walls, and then you see the Racist Group called the Brown Berets, then of course they raise their Mexican Flag on American Soil, and they salute it. That park they claim is now Mexican Soil, but I tell you it is the Property of the United States! This is Treason, and Mexicans are Committing Treason! America, Rise Up before we lose our Country!
Mexican (Aztlán) Flag Raised Over San Diego - Chicano Park Day 2013
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6BTikYxGLyA

Here is a documentary about the Mexican takeover of America, the Mexicans call this land Aztlan! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vd81LM3xsTI

My friends, Mexicans are taking over, and we better get serious and take it back! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UkhBmpHNo0s

1 like, 1 dislike
Posted by Bryan Fryer on 04/29/2014 at 2:13 AM

Re: “TUSD Banning Books? Well Yes, and No, and Yes

"Go back to Boston! Go back to Plymouth Rock, Pilgrims! Get out! We are the future. You are old and tired. Go on. We have beaten you. Leave like beaten rats. You old white people. It is your duty to die. Through love of having children, we are going to take over." -- Augustin Cebada, Brown Berets

"They're afraid we're going to take over the governmental institutions and other institutions. They're right. We will take them over. We are here to stay." -- Richard Alatorre, Los Angeles City Councilman

"We have an aging white America. They are not making babies. They are dying. The explosion is in our population . . . I love it. They are shitting in their pants with fear. I love it!" -- Professor Jose Angel Gutierrez, University of Texas

"Remember 187-proposition to deny taxpayer funds for services to non-citizens--was the last gasp of white America in California." - Art Torres, Chairman of the California Democratic Party

"We are politicizing every single one of these new citizens that are becoming citizens of this country . . . I gotta tell you that a lot of people are saying, 'I'm going to go out there and vote because I want to pay them back.'" -- Gloria Molina, Los Angeles County Supervisor

"California is going to be a Hispanic state. Anyone who doesn't like it should leave." -- Mario Obledo, California
Coalition of Hispanic Organizations and California State Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare under Governor Jerry Brown, also awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Bill Clinton

"We are practicing 'La Reconquista' in California." -- Jose Pescador Osuna, Mexican Consul General

"We need to avoid a white backlash by using codes understood by Latinos." -- Professor Fernando Guerra, Loyola Marymount University

"The American Southwest seems to be slowly returning to the jurisdiction of Mexico without firing a single shot." -- Excelsior, the national newspaper of Mexico

Note: There are Mexicans that don't feel this way, but there is an overwhelming Majority who do believe this, and they will take our country if we don't stop it now!

Here we have a Mexican American history teacher advocating revolution against White America at the Campus of UCLA!
The Infamous Ron Gochez
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRu0wo3DYh0


In San Diego, the Mexican people have a park called Chicano Park, and they have all their Communist Friends Painted on the Walls, and then you see the Racist Group called the Brown Berets, then of course they raise their Mexican Flag on American Soil, and they salute it. That park they claim is now Mexican Soil, but I tell you it is the Property of the United States! This is Treason, and Mexicans are Committing Treason! America, Rise Up before we lose our Country!
Mexican (Aztlán) Flag Raised Over San Diego - Chicano Park Day 2013
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6BTikYxGLyA

Here is a documentary about the Mexican takeover of America, the Mexicans call this land Aztlan! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vd81LM3xsTI

My friends, Mexicans are taking over, and we better get serious and take it back! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UkhBmpHNo0s

1 like, 2 dislikes
Posted by Bryan Fryer on 04/29/2014 at 12:41 AM

Re: “TUSD Banning Books? Well Yes, and No, and Yes

The Retaking of America-Aztlan U.S.A!

This document that I have put together shows the
philosophy, and Ideology that is a part of the Mexican
American Mindset, called Chicanismo. This belief is in
all levels of Chicano Society, and this is something
that was hidden from the American People, and only a
Civil War can stop, May God help us!

This so-called Poem "El Plan Espiritual de Aztlan" In
English is "Spiritual Plan of Aztlán" was written in
1969 by Alurista, but his real name is "Alberto Baltazar
Urista Heredia. He was born in Mexico in 1947, and he
came to America when he was 13 years old. He is a
Chicano poet and activist. Well, lets look at the key
words in this truly
Proclamation, and Chicano Manifesto!

"Brutal Gringo" Invasion of our Territories, Northern
Land of Aztlan,Came Our Forefathers, Reclaiming the
Land of the Land of their Birth, and our inevitable
"Destiny". Aztlan belongs to those who plant the
seeds..etc..etc..."and Not to the Foreign "Europeans".
We do not Recognize capricious frontiers on the Bronze
Continent. Brotherhood Unites Us...Time has Come, and
who Struggle against the Foreigner "Gabacho"...We
Declare the Independence of our "Mestizo Nation". We are
a Bronze people. Bronze Continent, "We are a Nation"..We
are "Aztlan".

This is a Chicano, or Mexican Manifesto hidden within a
so-called poem. I don't believe this is just a poem, and
neither do Mexicans. Next notice how the Chicanos us
"El Plan Espiritual de Aztlan" as a Manifesto, and as
the Foundation of their Movement. "Sets the Theme that
Chicanos must Use" Once we are committed to the idea and
philosophy of El Plan de Aztlan, we can only conclude
that social, economic, cultural, and political
independence is the only road to total "liberation"!

Notice they say, CONTROL of our Barrios, which is towns,
and the word "Lands" the believe that the Southwest is
their land. The Plan is so Important, it must commits
"All Levels of Society". Our struggle then must be for
the "control of our barrios, campos, pueblos, lands, our
economy, our culture, and our political life". El Plan
commits all levels of Chicano society.

Then "Nationalism" Transcends "ALL" areas of Life.
Next is Unity, again all levels of Societies must be
committed to the "Liberation of La Raza" The Race!

The next is "Economy", Economic Control..our Communities
can only come about by "Driving the Exploiter Out" of
our Communities. This is already happening in California
on a large scale, areas that were White American are now
Latin American. Look at L.A, the Blacks are being driven
out of their neighborhoods, even by gunpoint.

Wow, notice how they say lands rightfully our, then will
be fought for and defended. That sounds like a
reclaiming of lands and that they are ready to fight for
them, that's War fellow Americans!

"Lands rightfully ours" "will be fought for and
defended".

The next is Education, and notice that American history
is not included and that this Aztlan movement wants to
"Control" the schools, and the teachers, and the
administrators, our counselors. This is happening in
California, and was happening in Arizona, until fellow
Americans realized that it was Racist, and Anti-
American, and forced it out of their school system.

Next is INSTITUTIONS, notice they want "Restitution" for
a Full Life, "Restitution for past economic slavery",
Wow, Americans Never Enslaved Mexicans! Also they want
total control of Institutions in our community, and
those they can't control must get out!

Next is Self-Defense, which is a good Idea, all us
Americans should learn Self-Defense, and also have the
Weapons to do so! Look at the words of "Front Line" and
they are mostly referring to Gangbangers, and the
Mexican Mafia, for it says those from the Barrios! Also
the Protectors must be given respect and dignity! Notice
the words "offer their responsibility and their lives",
Wow, this is a war folks, for they are offering their
lives to it.

Then they say: Those who place themselves in the front
ranks for their people do so out of love and carnalismo.
The word Carnalismo is a Gang word which means Love for
the Homies: its an inner attitude that a true vato has,
full of loyalty,courage and love for his homies "Urban
Dictionary".

Notice how they say that "Juvenile Delinquency" will now
be "Revolutionary Acts". This anarchy and hate is
encouraged by M.E.CH.A, which is a Student organization,
and it's on Colleges, and Universities across the
Country. These M.E.CH.A students are to Proselytize, and
Evangelize all Hispanics in their Area.

For the very young there will no longer be acts of
juvenile delinquency, but revolutionary acts.

Next is Cultural, in which their culture is to Unite the
family of "La Raza", the Race towards "Liberation", and
they must insure that their writers, and poets, and
musicians and artist produce literature that is
appealing to their people and relates to their
revolutionary culture.

Notice "defeat the gringo dollar value system", this is
anti-capitalism, and they are always saying "Defeat the
Gringo"!

Next is Political Liberation, Americans, this is a war,
and they are trying to take over our Political Power,
and they want to Control is all, and if we don't wake
up, and stop worrying about being called a Racist, then
we will take our Country Back, and push them back across
the Border. We as a country should be tired of having
our hands tied by Political Correctness, we need to put
an end to this destruction of our Culture, and our
People. We built this Country, and we bled much to get
it, and we are going to have to bleed to keep it. Our
Forefathers would be trippin if they saw how we were
just giving away our country, and allowing others to
over run us. These people want to destroy us, they don't
want to be a part of America, NO, they want to Take it
from us, and Destroy us for Taking it! Please Wake Up!

"Where we are a Majority", "We will Control"; Where We
are a Minority, we will represent a Pressure Group.

Notice how the "El Plan" is to be presented and
distributed at church, school, tree, building, car, and
every place of human existence, that is every Latin
American Existence! This view is believed by all Mexican
Americans, and shared with all Latin Americans who are
mostly Mestizo, or Native Blood. Sure they will accept
White Hispanics into their Cause, and White Anglos into
their Cause, but after they have Genocided us, then they
will genocide these Whites when they are done with us!

Below is the Document that the Mexicans believe and
follow, from the Elites to the Students, then to the
Chicano people!

Awareness and distribution of El Plan Espiritual de
Aztlan. Presented at every meeting, demonstration,
confrontation, courthouse, institution, administration,
church, school, tree, building, car, and every place of
human existence.

EL PLAN DE AZTLAN

El Plan Espiritual de Aztlan In the spirit of a new
people that is conscious not only of its proud
historical heritage but also of the brutal "gringo"
invasion of our territories, we, the Chicano inhabitants
and civilizers of the northern land of Aztlán from
whence came our forefathers, reclaiming the land of
their birth and consecrating the determination of our
people of the sun, declare that the call of our blood is
our power, our responsibility, and our inevitable
destiny. We are free and sovereign to determine those
tasks which are justly called for by our house, our
land, the sweat of our brows, and by our hearts. Aztlán
belongs to those who plant the seeds, water the fields,
and gather the crops and not to the foreign Europeans.
We do not recognize capricious frontiers on the bronze
continent. Brotherhood unites us, and love for our
brothers makes us a people whose time has come and who
struggles against the foreigner "gabacho" who exploits
our riches and destroys our culture. With our heart in
our hands and our hands in the soil, we declare the
independence of our mestizo nation. We are a bronze
people with a bronze culture. Before the world, before
all of North America, before all our brothers in the
bronze continent we are a nation, we are a union of free
pueblos, we are Aztlán. Por La Raza todo. Fuera
de La Raza nada.

Program El Plan Espiritual de Aztlán sets the theme
that the Chicanos (La Raza de Bronze) must use their
nationalism as the key or common denominator for mass
mobilization and organization. Once we are committed to
the idea and philosophy of El Plan de Aztlán, we can
only conclude that social, economic, cultural, and
political independence is the only road to total
liberation from oppression, exploitation, and racism.

Our struggle then must be for the control of our
barrios, campos, pueblos, lands, our economy, our
culture, and our political life. El Plan commits all
levels of Chicano society-the barrio, the campo, the
ranchero, the writer, the teacher, the worker, the
professional-to La Causa.

Nationalism Nationalism as the key to organization
transcends all religious, political, class, and economic
factions or boundaries. Nationalism is the common
denominator that all members of La Raza can agree upon.
Organizational Goals 1. UNITY in the thinking of our
people concerning the barrios, the pueblo, the campo,
the land, the poor, the middle class, the professional -
all committed to the liberation of La Raza.

2. ECONOMY: economic control of our lives and our
communities can only come about by driving the exploiter
out of our communities, our pueblos, and our land and
by controlling and developing our own talents, sweat and
resources. Cultural background and values which ignore
materialism and embrace humanism will contribute to the
act of cooperative buying and the distribution of
resources and production to sustain an economic base for
healthy growth and development. Lands rightfully ours
will be fought for and defended. Land and realty
ownership will be acquired by the community for the
people's welfare. Economic ties of responsibility must
be secured by nationalism and the Chicano defense units.

3. EDUCATION must be relative to our people, i.e.,
history, culture, bilingual education, contributions,
etc. Community control of our schools, our teachers, our
administrators, our counselors, and our programs.

4. INSTITUTIONS shall serve our people by providing the
service necessary for a full life and their welfare on
the basis of restitution, not handouts or beggar's
crumbs. Restitution for past economic slavery, political
exploitation, ethnic and cultural psychological
destruction and denial of civil and human rights.
Institutions In our community which do not serve the
people have no place in the community. The institutions
belong to the people.

5. SELF-DEFENSE of the community must rely on the
combined strength of the people. The front line defense
will come from the barrios, the campos, the pueblos, and
the ranchitos. Their involvement as protectors of their
people will be given respect and dignity. They in turn
offer their responsibility and their lives for their
people. Those who place themselves in the front ranks
for their people do so out of love and carnalismo. Those
institutions which are fattened by our brothers to
provide employment and political pork barrels for the
gringo will do so only as acts of liberation and for La
Causa. For the very young there will no longer be acts
of juvenile delinquency, but revolutionary acts.

6. CULTURAL values of our people strengthen our identity
and the moral backbone of the movement. Our culture
unites and educates the family of La Raza towards
liberation with one heart and one mind. We must insure
that our writers, poets, musicians, and artists produce
literature and art that is appealing to our people and
relates to our revolutionary culture. Our cultural
values of life, family, and home will serve as a
powerful weapon to defeat the gringo dollar value system
and encourage the process of love and brotherhood.

7. POLITICAL LIBERATION can only come through
independent action on our part since the two-party
system is the same animal with two heads that feed from
the same trough. Where we are a majority, we will
control; where we are a minority, we will represent a
pressure group; nationally, we will represent one party:
La Familia de La Raza!

Action

1. Awareness and distribution of El Plan Espiritual de
Aztlan. Presented at every meeting, demonstration,
confrontation, courthouse, institution, administration,
church, school, tree, building, car, and every place of
human existence.

2. September 16, on the birthdate of Mexican
Independence, a national walk-out by all Chicanos of all
colleges and schools to be sustained until the complete
revision of the educational system: its policy makers,
administration, its curriculum, and Its personnel to
meet the needs of our community.

3. Self-defense against the occupying forces of the
oppressors at every school, every available man, woman,
and child.

4. Community nationalization and organization of all
Chicanos: El Plan Espiritual de Aztlan.

5. Economic program to drive the exploiter out of our
community and a welding together of our people's
combined resources to control their own production
through cooperative effort.

6. Creation of an independent local, regional, and
national political party. A nation autonomous and
free -culturally, socially, economically, and
politically-will make its own decisions on the usage of
our lands, the taxation of our goods, the utilization of
our bodies for war, the determination of justice (reward
and punishment), and the profit of our sweat. El Plan
de Aztlan is the plan of liberation!

http://www.umich.edu/~mechaum/ Aztlan.html

Below is taken from the M.E.CH.A Website, please read
carefully, and notice their Aztlan National belief! Can
you believe that our Government is permitting such a
Racist, and Anti-American organiztion to be on almost
every College in the Country!

Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán (MEChA)the
largest US Hispanic student organization, MECHA The
Philosophy of MEChA Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de
Aztlán (MEChA) is a student organization that promotes
higher education, cultura, and historia. MEChA was
founded on the principles of self-determination for the
liberation of our people. We believe that political
involvement and education is the avenue for change in
our society.....In March of 1969, at Denver, Colorado
the Crusade for Justice organized the National Chicano
Youth Conference that drafted the basic premises for the
Chicana/Chicano Movement in El Plan de Aztlán (EPA). A
synopsis of El Plan stipulates:

1) We are Chicanas and Chicanos of Aztlán reclaiming the
land of our birth (Chicana/Chicano Nation);

2) Aztlán belongs to indigenous people, who are
sovereign and not subject to a foreign culture;

3) We are a union of free pueblos forming a bronze
(Chicana/Chicano) Nation;

4) Chicano nationalism, as the key to mobilization and
organization, is the common denominator to bring
consensus to the Chicana/Chicano Movement;

5) Cultural values strengthen our identity as La Familia
de La Raza; and

6) EPA, as a basic plan of Chicana/Chicano liberation,
sought the formation of an independent national
political party that would represent the sentiments of
the Chicana/Chicano community......National Pride

Recognizing that the majority of our Raza are members of
the working class, we avow an anti-imperialist analysis
that includes Chicana/Chicano self-determination.
Chicano self-determination must begin with the
recognition of what is implied in using the term MEChA
(Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán).

Essentially, we are a Chicana and Chicano student
movement directly linked to Aztlán. As Chicanas and
Chicanos of Aztlán, we are a nationalist movement of
Indigenous Gente that lay claim to the land that is ours
by birthright. As a nationalist movement we seek to free
our people from the exploitation of an oppressive
society that occupies our land. Thus, the principle of
nationalism serves to preserve the cultural traditions
of La Familia de La Raza and promotes our identity as a
Chicana/Chicano Gente........Such leadership should be
principled and not liberal. For this reason, we cannot
believe in unity for unity's sake since there are many
opportunistic organizations, groups, and/or individuals
who care only for themselves and not for our people.
Just as we would expel FBI or CIA agent provocateurs
from our organizations, such opportunistic
organizations, groups, and/or individuals must be
exposed and expelled to strengthen our Movement.

http://www.nationalmecha.org/ philosophy.html

Another Chicano author rights about Aztlan, and notice
how she says "El Plan Espiritual de Aztlán" is often
deemed a "manifesto of Chicanismo", then notice where
she says "reclaiming the land of their birth," or the
land annexed to the United States in the 1848 Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo. Believe me, Mexicans are taught this
in their schools, in their churches, and in their
meetings, and MECHA is their Proselytizing, Evangelizing
mouth piece!

The Rhetoric of Aztlán: HB 2281, MEChA and Liberatory
EducationDora Ramirez-Dhoore, Boise State University
In March 1969 at the first national Chicano Liberation
Youth Conference hosted by the Crusade for Justice in
Denver, Colorado, a


young poet named Alurista read "El
Plan Espiritual de Aztlán" which forged the ideas of
"the bronze continent" and "Aztlán" (Anaya and Lomeli

1). This historical document, often deemed a manifesto
of Chicanismo, or a militant ethos1, advocated Chicano
nationalism and self-determination for Mexican

Americans. Today, it continues to be one of the founding
plans of the student organization, Movimiento
Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán, or MEChA. MEChA, which
"has been one of the more important student
organizations to address the issue of education" (Vargas
378), focuses on the organizational goals laid out in
the plan, including: Unity, Economy, Education,
Institutions, Self Defense, and Cultural and Political
Liberation. Included in this plan is the idea of
"reclaiming the land of their birth," or the land
annexed to the United States in the 1848 Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo.

1 like, 0 dislikes
Posted by Bryan Fryer on 04/29/2014 at 12:27 AM

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