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Re: “Predators and Prey

PubMed is a search engine researchers use to find relevent articles in their disciplines. A PubMed search of the literature calls up the following articles (titles, journals, authors, and abstracts).

1: Int J Law Psychiatry. 2007 Jan-Feb;30(1):36-48. Epub 2006 Dec 8. Links



Loathing the sinner, medicalizing the sin: why sexually violent predator statutes are unjust.

Douard J.

New Jersey Office of the Public Defender, 31 Clinton Street, Newark, New Jersey 07001, USA. Douard@rci.rutgers.edu

In seventeen states, persons convicted of one or more sexually violent offenses may be involuntarily civilly committed at the end of their criminal terms if they suffer from a mental disorder that renders them likely to reoffend sexually. These statutes place the burden on states to show that the sex offender meets the United States Constitutional standard of dangerousness. The key to proving dangerousness is proof of a mental disorder. However, the United States Supreme Court recently found that the offender need not be mentally ill. He need only "suffer" from "mental abnormality" or "personality disorder" that affects his cognitive, emotional or volitional capacities such that he is highly likely to sexually reoffend. These statutes are expressions of disgust: a fear of contamination by persons who engage in sexual conduct that forces us to confront our dark impulses. We do not merely hate the sin; we hate the sinner, and we want the sinner to be removed from our presence. Moreover, the emotions these statutes express are the source of widespread moral panic not warranted by data about recidivism risk. Laws that express disgust are likely to result in the unjust treatment of sex offenders.







Sex Abuse. 2006 Oct;18(4):343-55. Links



Does Static-99 predict recidivism among older sexual offenders?

Hanson RK.

Corrections Research, Public Safety Canada, 340 Laurier Ave., West, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0P8, Canada. karl.hanson@psepc-sppcc.gc.ca

Static-99 (Hanson & Thornton, 2000) is the most commonly used actuarial risk tool for estimating sexual offender recidivism risk. Recent research has suggested that its methods of accounting for the offenders' ages may be insufficient to capture declines in recidivism risk associated with advanced age. Using data from 8 samples (combined size of 3,425 sexual offenders), the present study found that older offenders had lower Static-99 scores than younger offenders and that Static-99 was moderately accurate in estimating relative recidivism risk in all age groups. Older offenders, however, had lower sexual recidivism rates than would be expected based on their Static-99 risk categories. Consequently, evaluators using Static-99 should considered advanced age in their overall estimate of risk.







Sex Abuse. 2009 Sep;21(3):279-307. Epub 2009 Jun 16. Links



The impact of prison-based treatment on sex offender recidivism: evidence from Minnesota.

Duwe G, Goldman RA.

Minnesota Department of Corrections, St. Paul, MN 55108-5219, USA. GDuwe@co.doc.state.mn.us

Using a retrospective quasi-experimental design, this study evaluates the effectiveness of prison-based treatment by examining recidivism outcomes among 2,040 sex offenders released from Minnesota prisons between 1990 and 2003 (average follow-up period of 9.3 years). To reduce observed selection bias, the authors used propensity score matching to create a comparison group of 1,020 untreated sex offenders who were not significantly different from the 1,020 treated offenders. In addition, intent-to-treat analyses and the Rosenbaum bounds method were used to test the sensitivity of the findings to treatment refuser and unobserved selection bias. Results from the Cox regression analyses revealed that participating in treatment significantly reduced the hazard ratio for rearrest by 27% for sexual recidivism, 18% for violent recidivism, and 12% for general recidivism. These findings are consistent with the growing body of research supporting the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for sex offenders.









Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2008 Aug 26. [Epub ahead of print] Links



Public Perception of Sex Offender Social Policies and the Impact on Sex Offenders.

Schiavone SK, Jeglic EL.

This study examines the public perception of sex offender policies and the perceived impact of sex offender policies on the sex offenders themselves. Specifically, this study explores how the community feels about the effectiveness of policies such as registration and community notification (Megan's Law), and housing restrictions in reducing sexual recidivism. Data are collected from 115 participants from a nationwide online community message board. Results suggest that although most individuals support Megan's Law, they do not feel the policy reduces recidivism. Furthermore, the majority of the participants also do not believe that housing restriction statutes are effective in reducing sexual recidivism. When questioned about the policy impact on sex offenders, the majority of respondents agree that as a consequence of Megan's Law, sex offenders are afraid for their safety; however, they do not believe that residence restrictions hinder sex offenders' employment opportunities. Findings from this study are discussed as they pertain to public policy and sex offender reintegration.











Sex Abuse. 2008 Jun;20(2):218-40. Links

The quality of community reintegration planning for child molesters: effects on sexual recidivism.

Willis GM, Grace RC.

University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. gwenda.willis@pg.canterbury.ac.nz

Research on the causal factors underlying sex offender recidivism has not considered the success or failure of the reintegration process by which the offender rejoins the community after prison. The authors developed a coding protocol to measure the quality and comprehensiveness of reintegration planning for sex offenders. The protocol was retrospectively applied to groups of recidivists and nonrecidivists who were matched on static risk level and follow-up time. The protocol demonstrated adequate reliability. Compared to nonrecidivists, recidivists had significantly lower scores relating to accommodation, employment, and the Good Lives Model secondary goods, as well as lower total reintegration plan scores. ANCOVAs showed that when IQ and level of sexual deviance were controlled for, accommodation (a place to live) was significantly related to sexual recidivism and the Good Lives Model-secondary goods was significantly related to any recidivism. These results suggest that poor reintegration planning may be a risk factor for recidivism.









Sex Abuse. 2008 Jun;20(2):188-205. Links

The impact of specialized sex offender legislation on community reentry.

Mercado CC, Alvarez S, Levenson J.

John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

The authors sought to examine the impact of notification and residence restriction statutes on sex offender reintegration. Although previous research has primarily sampled sex offenders receiving treatment, the authors examined the impact of these policies on a broad sample of registered sex offenders subject to notification via the Internet. Findings from a survey of 138 community sex offenders revealed that a high percentage perceived residence restriction and community notification legislation to negatively affect employment, housing, and social relations. Consistent with prior research in this area, these findings suggest that such policies might hamper offenders' efforts toward community reintegration, which ultimately could serve to inflate rates of recidivism. Directions for future research and implications for practice and policy evaluation are discussed.







J Interpers Violence. 2009 Mar;24(3):522-36. Epub 2008 May 5.

Outcome evaluation of a high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment program.

Olver ME, Wong SC, Nicholaichuk TP.

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. mark.olver@usask.ca

The treatment outcome of a high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment program was evaluated by comparing the sexual recidivism rates of 472 treated and 282 untreated sex offenders. The program is designed for moderate- to high-risk sex offenders and follows the principles of effective correctional treatment. The current investigation is an extension of an earlier study (Nicholaichuk et al., 2000) with the addition of 176 participants, an extra 4 years follow-up, and the use of Cox regression survival analysis to control for three potentially confounding variables: age of release, sexual offending history, and length of follow-up. Treated offenders sexually recidivated significantly less than the comparison group over nearly 20 years of follow-up, even after controlling for the aforementioned variables. The substantive findings suggest that treatment adhering to the what works principles can reduce long-term sexual recidivism for a moderate- to high-risk group of sex offenders.Clin Psychol Rev. 2008 Jul;28(6):917-32. Epub 2008 Feb 8.







Sex offender care for adolescents in secure care: critical factors and counseling strategies.

Underwood LA, Robinson SB, Mosholder E, Warren KM.

Regent University, School of Psychology and Counseling, 1000 University Drive, CRB 215, Virginia Beach, Virginia 23464, USA. leeunde@regent.edu

Sexual offenses perpetrated by adolescents have reportedly reached epidemic proportions. Adolescent sex offenders have been transferred to secure care facilities for their primary care. The elevated awareness and recognition of the problematic growth of adolescent sexual offenses has stimulated discussion among psychologists concerning the etiology, characteristics, classification, assessment, treatment interventions, and risk of recidivism. This article explores the critical factors and counseling strategies of those adolescents who have been adjudicated of sexual offenses.



{Note: The “Explosion” of child sex offenses is undoubtedly due to the criminalization of what was once considered normal – though unfortunate – behavior. These “crimes” were dealt with by the parents of children involved, and criminal justice was not involved. It seems that our justice system is making things worse}.







Sex Abuse. 2006 Oct;18(4):319-42.

Risk factors for adolescent sex offender recidivism: evaluation of predictive factors and comparison of three groups based upon victim type.

Parks GA, Bard DE.

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. gregory-parks@ouhsc.edu

This study investigated differences in recidivism risk factors and traits associated with psychopathy among 3 groups of male adolescent sexual offenders (N=156): offenders against children, offenders against peers or adults, and mixed type offenders. Furthermore, those same variables were examined for their association with sexual and nonsexual recidivism and the 3 groups were compared for differences in rates of recidivism. Based upon both juvenile and adult recidivism data, 6.4% of the sample reoffended sexually and 30.1% reoffended nonsexually. Retrospective risk assessments were completed using the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version (PCL:YV). Comparisons of the 3 preexisting groups for differences on scale and factor scores were conducted using analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Differences among groups for recidivism were measured using survival curve analysis. Associations between risk scales and recidivism were measured using Cox regression analyses. Results suggest significant differences among the 3 offender groups on multiple scales of the JSOAP-II and PCL:YV, with mixed type offenders consistently producing higher risk scores as compared to those who exclusively offend against children or peers/adults. The Impulsive/Antisocial Behavior scale of the JSOAP-II and the Interpersonal and Antisocial factors of the PCL:YV were significant predictors of sexual recidivism. The Behavioral and Antisocial factors of the PCL:YV were significant predictors of nonsexual recidivism. Results supported previous research indicating that most adolescents who sexually offend do not continue offending into adulthood. Such results can lead to improved treatment by targeting specific risk factors for intervention and better use of risk management resources in the community, while preserving the most restrictive treatment options for the highest risk offenders.









J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2007;35(4):454-68.



Predicting the likelihood of future sexual recidivism: pilot study findings from a California sex offender risk project and cross-validation of the Static-99.

Sreenivasan S, Garrick T, Norris R, Cusworth-Walker S, Weinberger LE, Essres G, Turner S, Fain T.

Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. shoba.sreenivasan@med.va.gov

Pilot findings on 137 California sex offenders followed up over 10 years after release from custody (excluding cases in which legal jurisdiction expired) are presented. The sexual recidivism rate, very likely inflated by sample selection, was 31 percent at five years and 40 percent at 10 years. Cumulatively, markers of sexual deviance (multiple victim types) and criminality (prior parole violations and prison terms) led to improved prediction of sexual recidivism (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] = .71, r = .46) than singly (multiple victim types: ROC = .60, r = .31; prior parole violations and prison terms: ROC = .66, r = .37). Long-term Static-99 statistical predictive accuracy for sexual recidivism was lower in our sample (ROC = .62, r =.24) than the values presented in the developmental norms. Sexual recidivism rates were higher in our study for Static-99 scores of 2 and 3 than in the developmental sample, and lower for scores of 4 and 6. Given failures to replicate developmental norms, the Static-99 method of ranking sexual recidivism risk warrants caution when applied to individual offenders.

{Note that small sample size and lack of definition of what constitutes a “sex offender” can make recidivism rates appear worse}.





1: Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2007 Aug;51(4):369-83.

Comment in:

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2007 Aug;51(4):367-8.

Sex offender legislation in the United States: what do we know?

Cohen M, Jeglic EL.

John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, NY 10019, USA.

In the United States there has been increased public pressure to create legislation to monitor and confine sex offenders. However, to date, there has been very little empirical evidence suggesting that these laws are effective in preventing future recidivism. This article reviews the current trends in sex offender legislation, including mandatory sentencing, civil commitment, community notification, monitoring, and supervision and the impact these policies may have on sex offender recidivism and treatment.





Sex Abuse. 2007 Jun;19(2):107-13. Epub 2007 May 26.



Sexual offense adjudication and sexual recidivism among juvenile offenders.

Caldwell MF.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1202 W, Johnson St., Madison, WI 53706, USA. mfcaldwell@wisc.edu

This study compares the recidivism patterns of a cohort of 249 juvenile sexual offenders and 1,780 non-sexual offending delinquents who were released from secured custody over a two and one half year period. The prevalence of sex offenders with new sexual offense charges during the 5 year follow-up period was 6.8%, compared to 5.7% for the non-sexual offenders, a non-significant difference. Juvenile sex offenders were nearly ten times more likely to have been charged with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense. Eighty-five percent of the new sexual offenses in the follow-up period were accounted for by the non-sex offending delinquents. None of the 54 homicides (including three sexual homicides) was committed by a juvenile sex offender. The implications of the results for recent public policy trends that impose restrictions that are triggered by a sexual offense adjudication are discussed.

PMID: 17530405 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]







1: J Consult Clin Psychol. 2005 Dec;73(6):1154-63. Links

The characteristics of persistent sexual offenders: a meta-analysis of recidivism studies.

Hanson RK, Morton-Bourgon KE.

Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0P8, Canada. Karl.Hanson@psepc-sppcc.gc.ca

A meta-analysis of 82 recidivism studies (1,620 findings from 29,450 sexual offenders) identified deviant sexual preferences and antisocial orientation as the major predictors of sexual recidivism for both adult and adolescent sexual offenders. Antisocial orientation was the major predictor of violent recidivism and general (any) recidivism. The review also identified some dynamic risk factors that have the potential of being useful treatment targets (e.g., sexual preoccupations, general self-regulation problems). Many of the variables commonly addressed in sex offender treatment programs (e.g., psychological distress, denial of sex crime, victim empathy, stated motivation for treatment) had little or no relationship with sexual or violent recidivism.

{We already are able to spot the most dangerous offenders; no need to lump all offenders under the draconian title of “sex offender.”}



Sex Abuse. 2005 Jul;17(3):313-31.


Juvenile sex offender re-arrest rates for sexual, violent nonsexual and property crimes: a 10-year follow-up.

Waite D, Keller A, McGarvey EL, Wieckowski E, Pinkerton R, Brown GL.

Department of Juvenile Justice, Behavioral Services Unit, Richmond, Virginia, USA. dennis.waite@djj.virginia.gov

We report the results of a 10-year follow-up recidivism study of two sex offender treatment programs for incarcerated juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) in Virginia. The programs vary in environment and intensity. The more intense JSO program ("self-contained") operates in specialized living units that are separate from those of the general juvenile incarcerated population. In the less intense program ("prescriptive"), JSOs remain housed with the general population of juvenile offenders. Arrest and incarceration data through January 2003 were obtained for 261 male JSOs released between 1992 and 2001. The inclusion of adult incarceration data allowed for a more accurate assessment of the actual time at risk for sexual re-offending. Outcomes are re-arrest rates, length of time to re-arrest and type of offense (property, nonsexual assault, sexual) on re-arrest, with analyses using survival curve functions. For both groups, actual re-arrest is most likely to be for a nonsexual person offense (31 and 47%, respectively) and least likely to be for a sexual offense (<5% for both groups). Comparing the nonequivalent groups, the self-contained treatment group has a lower predicted re-arrest rate and a longer mean time to re-arrest, for all types of offenses, than the prescriptive treatment group. In addition, juveniles who indicate high levels of impulsive/antisocial behaviors are significantly more likely to recidivate compared to juveniles with low-levels of impulsive/antisocial behaviors, regardless of treatment type. This is the first 10-year follow-up study of treatment outcomes for a relatively large sample of males who were incarcerated for sexual offenses as juveniles.

PMID: 16121841 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

{Juvenile sex offenders are less than 5% likely to committ another sexual offense after treatment}





Arch Sex Behav. 2005 Jun;34(3):277-83. Links



Hostility and recidivism in sexual offenders.

Firestone P, Nunes KL, Moulden H, Broom I, Bradford JM.

School of Psychology and Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. fireston@uottawa.ca

In this study, we examined the association of hostility, as measured by the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), with offence characteristics and recidivism in 656 adult male sexual offenders. Hostility was significantly associated with having prior violent charges, the use of violence in the index sexual offence, sexual recidivism, and violent recidivism. After controlling for risk level, as measured by a modified version of the Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offence Recidivism (RRASOR-mod), the significant association between hostility and sexual and violent recidivism remained. When examined by type of offender, hostility was significantly associated with recidivism in intrafamilial and extrafamilial child molesters, but not in rapists or mixed offenders. Given the predictive value of hostility independent of the RRASOR-mod, the present findings confirm and encourage treatment efforts directed toward the management of hostility and anger in sexual offenders.



{Hostility and anger may make offenders more likely to reoffend. These laws may make the situation worse and our communities less safe.}





Specifically about Child Pornography:

BMC Psychiatry. 2009 Jul 14;9:43.

The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending.

Endrass J, Urbaniok F, Hammermeister LC, Benz C, Elbert T, Laubacher A, Rossegger A.

Department of Justice, Canton of Zurich, Switzerland. jerome.endrass@ji.zh.ch

BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design. METHODS: The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008. RESULTS: 4.8% (n = 11) of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2) for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8) for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7) of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9) with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2) with a hands-on sex offense. CONCLUSION: Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses - at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable.



Sex Abuse. 2007 Dec;19(4):449-65. Epub 2007 Nov 16.

Characteristics of internet child pornography offenders: a comparison with child molesters.



Webb L, Craissati J, Keen S.



Oxleas NHS Trust, Dartford, Kent, UK.



The aim of this exploratory study was to compare internet sex offenders with a matched group of child molesters in the Greater London Area. Over an 8-month period 210 subjects were assessed, of whom 90 were internet sex offenders and 120 were child molesters. A wide range of background data was collected, including a number of psychometric measures to determine risk and personality traits. The research identified a number of similarities between internet sex offenders and child molesters on background variables. Specifically, in comparison to the child molesters, the internet offenders reported more psychological difficulties in adulthood and fewer prior sexual convictions. The socio-affective characteristics of internet offenders and child molesters look similar, but the antisocial variables, such as, 'acting out' and breaking social rules underlines their difference. The follow up research was carried out after a short period of time at risk-averaging 18 months-but suggested that internet sex offenders were significantly less likely to fail in the community than child molesters in terms of all types of recidivism.





Sex Abuse. 2005 Apr;17(2):201-10.

The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.



Seto MC, Eke AW.



Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, and University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Michael_Seto@camh.net



The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.

{Note that more restrictive laws inflate the statistic for “reoffending.}.





BMC Psychiatry. 2009 Jul 14;9:43.
The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending.

Endrass J, Urbaniok F, Hammermeister LC, Benz C, Elbert T, Laubacher A, Rossegger A.

Department of Justice, Canton of Zurich, Switzerland. jerome.endrass@ji.zh.ch

BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design. METHODS: The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008. RESULTS: 4.8% (n = 11) of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2) for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8) for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7) of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9) with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2) with a hands-on sex offense. CONCLUSION: Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses - at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable.










Sex Abuse. 2007 Dec;19(4):449-65. Epub 2007 Nov 16.

Characteristics of internet child pornography offenders: a comparison with child molesters.

Webb L, Craissati J, Keen S.

Oxleas NHS Trust, Dartford, Kent, UK.

The aim of this exploratory study was to compare internet sex offenders with a matched group of child molesters in the Greater London Area. Over an 8-month period 210 subjects were assessed, of whom 90 were internet sex offenders and 120 were child molesters. A wide range of background data was collected, including a number of psychometric measures to determine risk and personality traits. The research identified a number of similarities between internet sex offenders and child molesters on background variables. Specifically, in comparison to the child molesters, the internet offenders reported more psychological difficulties in adulthood and fewer prior sexual convictions. The socio-affective characteristics of internet offenders and child molesters look similar, but the antisocial variables, such as, 'acting out' and breaking social rules underlines their difference. The follow up research was carried out after a short period of time at risk-averaging 18 months-but suggested that internet sex offenders were significantly less likely to fail in the community than child molesters in terms of all types of recidivism.







Mayo Clin Proc. 2007 Apr;82(4):457-71.


A profile of pedophilia: definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes, and forensic issues.

Hall RC, Hall RC.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Pedophilia has become a topic of increased interest, awareness, and concern for both the medical community and the public at large. Increased media exposure, new sexual offender disclosure laws, Web sites that list the names and addresses of convicted sexual offenders, politicians taking a 'get tough' stance on sexual offenders, and increased investigations of sexual acts with children have increased public awareness about pedophilia. Because of this increased awareness, it is important for physicians to understand pedophilia, its rate of occurrence, and the characteristics of pedophiles and sexually abused children. In this article, we address research that defines the various types and categories of pedophilia, review available federal data on child molestation and pornography, and briefly discuss the theories on what makes an individual develop a sexual orientation toward children. This article also examines how researchers determine if someone is a pedophile, potential treatments for pedophiles and sexually abused children, the risk of additional sexual offenses, the effect of mandatory reporting laws on both physicians and pedophiles, and limitations of the current pedophilic literature.


PMID: 17418075 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Swiss Med Wkly. 2005 Aug 20;135(33-34):488-94.


Paedophilia on the Internet--a study of 33 convicted offenders in the Canton of Lucerne.

Frei A, Erenay N, Dittmann V, Graf M.

Psychiatrische Klinik, Kantonsspital Luzern, Switzerland. andreas.frei@ksl.ch

BACKGROUND: The connection between the consumption of pornography and "contact-crimes" is unclear. The Internet has facilitated the mass consumption of pornography in general and specifically illegal pornography such as child-pornography. In 1999, the owners of "Landslide Production Inc.", an international provider of child-pornography in the USA were arrested and the credit-card-numbers of their clients were put at the disposal of the law enforcement agencies of the countries concerned. METHODS: Roughly 1300 Swiss citizens were subsequently arrested in the course of the nationwide action "Genesis". In the canton of Lucerne 33 men were identified. The police-files of these men were screened for psychosocial, criminological and psychosexual data. RESULTS: Most of these middle-aged men held comparatively elevated professional positions, only ten were married, eleven had never had an intimate relationship to a woman, and only thirteen of them had children. Only one of them had a relevant criminal record. The level of abuse depicted in the illegal material was high, all but one consumed pornography from other fields of sexual deviation. The personal statements of the offenders in general were hardly reliable, in three cases, however, the diagnosis of sexual deviation could be established from the files. The estimated time some of the offenders must have spent online in order to retrieve the material allows the diagnosis of Pathological Internet-Use. CONCLUSIONS: Deviant sexual fantasies seem to be widespread also among men otherwise not registered for any offences. The consumption of even particularly disgusting material may not be a specific risk factor for "contact" crimes.




Sex Abuse. 2005 Apr;17(2):201-10.

The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

Seto MC, Eke AW.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, and University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Michael_Seto@camh.net

The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.









Posted by BioProf on 06/07/2010 at 9:14 AM

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